# Design a logo

## Logo beginnings

The new (and currently fictitious) organization JuliaFission has just asked you to design a new logo for them. They're something to do with atoms and particles, perhaps? So we'll design a new logo for them using some basic shapes; perhaps colored circles in some kind of spiral formation would look suitably "atomic".

Let's try out some ideas.

```
using Luxor
Drawing(500, 500, "my-drawing.svg")
origin()
setcolor("red")
circle(Point(0, 0), 100, action = :fill)
finish()
preview()
```

This short piece of code does the following things:

makes a new drawing 500 units square, and will save it in the file "my-drawing.svg" in SVG format.

moves the zero point from the top left to the center. Graphics applications usually start measuring from the top left (occasionally from the bottom left), but it's easier to work out the positions of things if you start at the center. The

`origin()`

function moves the`0/0`

point to the center of the drawing.selects one of the 200 or so named colors (defined in Colors.jl)

draws a circle at x = 0, y = 0, with radius 100 units, and fills it with the current color

finishes the drawing and displays it on the screen

In case you're wondering, the units are *points* (as in font sizes), and there are 72 points in an inch, just over 3 per millimeter. The y-axis points down the page. If you want to be reminded of where the x and y axes are, use the `rulers`

function.

The `action=:fill`

at the end of `circle`

uses one of a set of symbols that let you use the shape you've created in different ways. There's the `:stroke`

action, which draws around the edges but doesn't fill the shape with color. You might also meet the `:fillstroke`

, `:fillpreserve`

, `:strokepreserve`

, `:clip`

, and `:path`

actions.

## Circles in a spiral

We want more than just one circle. We'll define a triangular shape, and place a circle at each corner. The `ngon`

function creates regular polygons (eg triangles, squares, pentagons, etc.), and the `vertices=true`

keyword doesn't draw the shape, it just provides the corner points - just what we want.

```
# using Luxor
Drawing(500, 500, "my-drawing.svg")
origin()
setcolor("red")
corners = ngon(Point(0, 0), 80, 3, vertices=true)
circle.(corners, 10, action = :fill)
finish()
preview()
```

Notice the "." after `circle`

. This broadcasts the `circle()`

function over the `corners`

, thus drawing a 10-unit red-filled circle at every point.

The arguments to `ngon`

are usually centerpoint, radius, and the number of sides. Try changing the third argument from 3 (triangle) to 4 (square) or 31 (traikontagon?).

To create a spiral of circles, we want to repeat this "draw a circle at each vertex of a triangle" procedure more than once. A simple loop will do: we'll rotate the current drawing context by `i *`

5° (`deg2rad(5)`

radians) each time (so 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°, and 30°), and at the same time increase the size of the polygon by multiples of 10:

```
Drawing(500, 500, "my-drawing.svg")
origin()
setcolor("red")
for i in 1:6
rotate(i * deg2rad(5))
corners = ngon(Point(0, 0), 80 + 10i, 3, vertices=true)
circle.(corners, 10, action = :fill)
end
finish()
preview()
```

## Just add color

The colors used in the Julia logo are available as constants in Luxor, so we can make two changes that cycle through them. The first new line creates the set of Julia colors; then the `setcolor`

function then works through them. `mod1`

(get the `nth`

element of an array) is the 1-based version of the `mod`

function, essential for working with Julia and its 1-based indexing, such that `mod1(4, end)`

gets the last value of a four element array (whereas `mod(4, end)`

would fail, since it would return 0, and `colors[0]`

would be an error).

```
using Luxor
using Colors
Drawing(500, 500, "my-drawing.svg")
origin()
const colors = (Luxor.julia_green, Luxor.julia_red,Luxor.julia_purple, Luxor.julia_blue)
for i in 1:6
setcolor(colors[mod1(i, end)])
rotate(i * deg2rad(5))
corners = ngon(Point(0, 0), 80 + 10i, 3, vertices=true)
circle.(corners, 10, action = :fill)
end
finish()
preview()
```

## Taking particles seriously

The flat circles are a bit dull, so let's write a function that draws the circles as ‘particles’.

The `drawcircle()`

function draws lots of circular disks on top of each other, but each one is drawn with a slightly smaller radius and a slightly lighter shade of the incoming color. The `rescale`

function in Luxor provides an easy way to map or adjust values from one range to another. Here, it's used to change both the color and the size of the disks as the loop counter goes from 5 down to 1.

Also, let's make them get larger as they spiral outwards, by adding `4i`

to the radius when called by `drawcircle()`

.

```
function drawcircle(pos, radius, n)
c = colors[mod1(n, end)]
for i in 5:-0.1:1
# increase color from 0.5 to 3 as i drops from 5 to 1
setcolor(rescale(i, 5, 1, 0.5, 3) .* c)
# decrease radius from radius to radius/6
diskradius = rescale(i, 5, 1, radius, radius/6)
circle(pos + (i/2, i/2), diskradius, action = :fill)
end
end
Drawing(500, 500, "my-drawing.svg")
origin()
for i in 1:6
rotate(i * deg2rad(5))
corners = ngon(Point(0, 0), 80 + 10i, 3, vertices=true)
drawcircle.(corners, 10 + 4i, i)
end
finish()
preview()
```

This is looking quite promising. But here’s the thing: in a parallel universe, you might already have made this in no time at all using Adobe Illustrator or Inkscape. But with this Luxor code, you can try all kinds of different variations with almost immediate results - you can “walk through the parameter space”, either manually or via code, and see what effects you get. You don’t have to redraw everything with different angles and radii...

So here's what a pentagonal theme with more circles looks like:

```
Drawing(500, 500, "my-drawing.svg")
origin()
for i in 1:12
rotate(i * deg2rad(1.5))
corners = ngon(Point(0, 0), 10 + 12i, 5, vertices=true)
drawcircle.(corners, 5 + 2i, i)
end
finish()
preview()
```

To tidy up, it's a good idea to move the code into functions (to avoid running too much in global scope), and do a bit of housekeeping.

Also, a background for the icon would look good. `squircle`

is useful for drawing shapes that occupy the space between pointy dull rectangles and space-inefficient circles.

The complete final script looks like this:

```
using Luxor, Colors
const colors = (Luxor.julia_green, Luxor.julia_red,Luxor.julia_purple, Luxor.julia_blue)
function drawcircle(pos, radius, n)
c = colors[mod1(n, end)]
for i in 5:-.1:1
setcolor(rescale(i, 5, 1, 0.5, 3) .* c)
diskradius = rescale(i, 5, 1, radius, radius/6)
circle(pos + (i/2, i/2), diskradius, action = :fill)
end
end
function main(filename)
Drawing(500, 500, filename)
origin()
setcolor(0.2, 0.2, 0.3)
squircle(O, 240, 240, rt=0.5, action = :fill)
for i in 1:12
rotate(i * deg2rad(1.5))
corners = ngon(Point(0, 0), 10 + 12i, 5, vertices=true)
drawcircle.(corners, 5 + 2i, i)
end
finish()
preview()
end
main("my-drawing.svg")
```

So, did the JuliaFission organization like their logo? Who knows? - they may still be debating how accurate the representation of an atom should be... But if not, we can always recycle some of these ideas for future projects. 😃

## Extra credit

### 1. Randomize

Try refactoring your code so that you can automatically run through various parameter ranges. You could create many drawings with automatically-generated filenames...

### 2. Remember the random values

Using random numbers is a great way to find new patterns and shapes; but unless you know what values were used, you can't easily reproduce them. It's frustrating to produce something really good but not know what values were used to make it. So modify the code so that the random numbers are remembered, and drawn on the screen (you can use the `text(string, position)`

function),